Gross domestic product up 1.9% in 2022 (2024)

German economy recovering despite difficult framework conditions

Press release No. 020 of 13 January 2023

WIESBADEN - According to first calculations of the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), the price adjusted gross domestic product (GDP) was 1.9% higher in 2022 than in the previous year. After adjustment for calendar effects, economic growth amounted to 2.0%. “In 2022, the overall economic situation in Germany was affected by the consequences of the war in Ukraine and the extremely high energy price increases,” said Dr. Ruth Brand, new President of the Federal Statistical Office since 1 January 2022, at the press conference on the gross domestic product 2022 (only in german) in Berlin. “There also were serious material shortages and delivery bottlenecks, massively rising prices, for example of food, skilled labour shortages, and the continuing though fading Covid-19 pandemic. Although these difficult conditions persist, the German economy as a whole managed to perform well in 2022,” Brand continued. GDP was 0.7% higher in 2022 than in 2019, the year before the Covid-19 crisis began.


Gross domestic product, price adjusted
Change on the previous year (in percent):
Gross domestic product, price and calendar adjusted
Change on the previous year (in percent):

Service branches profited from catch-up effects; high prices and material shortages hampered industrial production and construction

The total price adjusted gross value added rose by 1.8% in 2022 from 2021. The development differed considerably between the individual economic sectors. Some service branches profited from catch-up effects after almost all Covid-19 restrictions had been lifted. A particularly strong increase was recorded for other services, which include the creative and entertainment industries (+6.3%). Transport as well as, accommodation and food services also profited from the lifting of restrictions. The strong increase of 4.0% seen in the aggregated economic sector of trade, transport, accommodation and food services was owing to these two sectors. Gross value added declined in trade, however, after having increased the year before. The information and communication branch continued on its long-term growth path and also recorded a considerable increase (+3.6%) after a slowdown in only the first Covid year of 2020.

In construction, which had fared comparatively well during the Covid-19 crisis, material and skilled labour shortages, high construction costs and worsening financing conditions led to a considerable decline in gross value added (-2.3%). The high energy prices and the still limited availability of intermediate products also hindered economic performance in manufacturing, which hardly increased year on year (+0.2%). As in 2021, manufacturing was affected by interruptions in worldwide supply chains especially in the first half of 2022. The situation was aggravated by the soaring energy prices as a consequence of the war in Ukraine.

Household final consumption expenditure and gross fixed capital formation in machinery and equipment support growth

On the demand side, it was mostly household final consumption expenditure which accounted for the growth of the German economy in 2022. It rose by a price adjusted 4.6% on the previous year and thus almost reached the pre-crisis level of 2019. This was due to catch-up effects after nearly all Covid-19 restrictions had been lifted in the spring of 2022. This is shown very clearly by the expenditure on restaurant and accommodation services. Households also spent more on recreation, entertainment and culture than a year earlier. The 1.1% increase of government final consumption expenditure in 2022 was relatively moderate after two years that had been heavily impacted by the pandemic. General government spent markedly more to feed and accommodate all the people from Ukraine and other countries seeking protection. Government expenditure to fight the Covid-19 pandemic went down, in contrast, even though large amounts of vaccines were still procured and financed.

Gross fixed capital formation in construction was down a price adjusted 1.6% in 2022. The lack of building materials and the shortage of skilled workers especially affected building and housing construction. In the course of 2022, the negative trend of gross fixed capital formation in construction was reinforced by an increasing number of cancellations of orders for commercial and private building projects as construction prices remained high and interest rates in construction were rising. In contrast, gross fixed capital formation in machinery and equipment increased a price adjusted 2.5% in 2022 on the previous year.

Foreign trade increased in 2022 on a year earlier despite high price increases. German exports of goods and services were up a price adjusted 3.2% on 2021. Imports increased much more over the same period, by a price adjusted 6.7%. Thus, the balance of exports and imports had a downward effect on GDP growth.

Labour market robust under still difficult circ*mstances

In 2022, the economic performance was achieved by an average of 45.6 million persons in employment whose place of employment was in Germany. This was an increase of 1.3%, or 589,000 persons, on a year earlier – more than ever before in Germany. Employees subject to social insurance contributions and the service branches mainly accounted for the employment growth seen in 2022. The number of persons in employment in manufacturing rose only slightly in 2022 and could not offset the employment losses of the two preceding years. In construction, there was another small employment gain despite the shortage of skilled labour.

New burdens due to energy crisis overlap budget relief from ending Covid-19 measures

General government budgets recorded a financial deficit (net borrowing) of 101.6 billion euros at the end of 2022, according to provisional calculations. This was a decrease of just under 33 billion euros compared with 2021 (134.3 billion euros). Government budget relief due to the ending Covid-19 measures was overlapped by new burdens caused by the energy crisis resulting from the Russian war of aggression in Ukraine. The Federal Government initiated three relief packages, among others, to counteract the soaring energy costs and support consumers and businesses. The relief packages led to higher government expenditure, which was financed mainly by the central government. As in 2021, the central government deficit (-117.6 billion euros) was somewhat higher in 2022 than the deficit of general government as a whole. State government, local government and social security funds each recorded small financial surpluses. Measured as a percentage of nominal GDP, the deficit ratio of general government was 2.6% in 2022, which is substantially lower than in the two preceding years.

Financial deficit / surplus of general government, billion euros
Central government21.446-87.379-145.925-117.633
State government13.997-30.8652.8083.821
Local government8.5745.5244.5747.488
Social security funds9.156-34.8344.2914.693
Net lending/net borrowing of general government,
percent of nominal GDP

First results regarding the development of the gross domestic product in the fourth quarter of 2022 will be published by the Federal Statistical Office on 30 January 2023. Detailed national accounting results will be released on 24 February 2023.

Gross domestic product, gross national income and
net national income (factor costs)
1 Contributions to growth of price-adjusted GDP in percentage points.
Change on the previous year in %
At current prices
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs3.0-5.13.511.9
Government final consumption expenditure5.
Gross fixed capital formation(GFCF)4.7-0.86.511.2
D o m e s t i cu s e s3.7-
G r o s sd o m e s t i cp r o d u c t(GDP)3.2-
Gross national income3.2-
Net national income(factor costs)2.7-
Compensation of employees4.6-
Property and entrepreneurial income-1.7-4.615.0-0.6
Disposable income of households2.
Price adjusted
Final consumption expenditure ofhouseholds and NPISHs1.6-
Government final consumption expenditure2.
Gross fixed capital formation(GFCF)1.9-
GFCF in construction1.03.90.0-1.6
GFCF in machinery and equipment1.0-
GFCF in other products6.1-
D o m e s t i cu s e s1.7-
Balance of exports and imports 1-0.6-0.80.8-1.3
G r o s sd o m e s t i cp r o d u c t(GDP)1.1-
GDP per person in employment0.1-
GDP per hour worked by persons in employment0.
Gross value added, total0.8-
Trade, transport, accommodation and food services3.4-
Information, communication3.
Business services0.1-
Public services, education, health1.5-
Other services1.8-

More information:

The statement for the press conference on the gross domestic product of 2022 for Germany and additional results are available on the press conference webpage.

More detailed results on the 2022 GDP are contained in Fachserie 18 “National Accounts”, Series 1.1 “First Annual Results”.

Other publications on national accounts and a detailed quality report can be found on the “National Accounts, Domestic Product” theme page under “Publications”.

The above and other current national accounting results are also available in the GENESIS-Online database. Visualised updated results of national accounts are also provided in our interactive National Accounts Monitor for Germany (only in german) (

Up-to-date indicators of official statistics and other data providers on the topics of economy and finance as well as environment, health and mobility are offered also in the "Dashboard Germany” (only in german) ( A tool available there is the Economic Pulse Monitor (only in german) (Pulsmesser Wirtschaft). It can be used for real-time monitoring of the economic development.

Russia’s attack on Ukraine and the related sanctions have an impact on many parts of the economy and society. We have compiled data and information on the subject for you on a special webpage (only in german).

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Gross domestic product up 1.9% in 2022 (2024)


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Last UpdatedMay 30 2024, 08:35 EDT
Next ReleaseJun 27 2024, 08:30 EDT (R)
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1 more row

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